The Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first Chinese dynasty to rule Imperial China. It lasted about 15 years, from about 221 BC to 207 BC, and only had two emperors. When the first emperor, Qin Shihuangdi (Ying Zheng) came into power as the first man to rule all of China, he said that he did not want to be called king, and he called himself First Emperor Qin. He had chosen the name Qin Shihuangdi because when translated it means " First August and Divine Emperor of Qin". During the reign of the Qin, dynasty China changed in many different ways. Emperors of dynasties after this followed the ways Qin Shihuangdi.
The Great Wall
One of the Qin Dynasty's greatest achievements was beginning the Great Wall of China. The previous Zhou dynasty had built small walls on the northern border th stop nomadic invaders coming from the north. Qin Shi Huangdi ordered the walls to be connected. It spanned half of China's border. Huangdi ordered peasents to build the wall throughout the year on fear of death. Many workers still died from accidents and the winter weather of northern China.
First Emperor Qin was a wise and strict ruler. To make sure that everyone did their work and followed the rules, he passed a law that stated that at work and at home people had to spy on each other. Simply stated, if you saw someone breaking the law, you turned them in and were rewarded, but if you saw someone breaking the law and did not turn them in, you were executed. This system was a great success, and gave Qin the power needed to make the changes needed to protect the newly unified China.
Emperor Qin was a legalist so when he came in to power he destroyed the system of Fiefdom and the Prefecture and County System was nominated by Li Si. Li Si was a chief of Counselors in the Qin Dynasty. Changing the power of Positioning of officials helped to overcome the division of power in China and also to avoid the problems that occur in spring and autumn. Legalists have the belief that people are bad and should be watched and controlled at all times so they have the ability to work hard. The legalism in Qin's empire was very strict. If you whined or suggested improvement, you were immediately put to death, without a trial hearing.
A System of Bureaucracy
Emperor Qin was a Bureaucrat. He divided his empire into 36 providences, and each providence was split into two districts, with an official from the government in charge of each district. Qin did this to keep his people in line, and make it easier to oversee their lives.
The Fall of The Qin Dynasty
The Qin dynasty was doomed to fail after Qin Shi Huang died in 210, and the empire was handed over to his much less capable son, Huhai. His advisers are Zhao Gao and Li Si. In 208, Zhao Gao ha Li Si killed. Huhai was replaced by Zi Ying, the last Emperor of the Qin, the same year. Within 2 years, he kills Zhao Gao and surrenders (and is eventually killed by) Liu Bang. The Qin Dynasty was easily overthrown when Huhai came into power. His advisers were Zhao Gao and Li Si, who had very different opinions. In 208, Zhao Gao had Li Si killed and had Huhai replaced with Zi Ying, the last Emperor of the Qin, the same year. Within the course of two years, Zi Ying surrenders to and is eventually killed by Liu Bang. Zi Ying's surrender ended the short but great era of the Qin Dynasty.
Borders of The Qin Dynasty
The Qin Dynasty was the first dynasty to rule all of China. It included all of China and eventually Vietnam. It included the Yellow, West, Wei, and Yangtse rivers.